The USE 2020 Paronyms: List and Meaning

In KIMs in Russian, compiled by FIPI for the Unified State Examination of 2020, there are tasks for paronyms, which can be handled by a special dictionary containing a complete list of words used in the preparation of examination tickets, as well as their meanings.

Important About Paronyms

Paronyms are words close in spelling, morphemic composition and pronunciation, but different in meaning.

There are three main groups of paronyms:

  • root (have a purely external resemblance, but with different roots);
  • affix (have a common root and are united by a semantic link);
  • etymological (the same word borrowed from other languages ​​in different ways).

Important! The incorrect use of paronyms is considered a gross lexical error, therefore, it is necessary to know the meanings of such words and the features of their use in oral and written speech.

Note! In the text, such words can be expressed in various parts of speech (noun, adjective, verb, adverb), and therefore can be used in different lexical structures.

Having opened a brief dictionary of paronyms compiled for the Unified State Examination of 2020, or a publication that contains a complete list of words similar in sound to the Russian language, one can meet:

  • paronymic couples (bundles of 2 words each);
  • paronymic series (connectives containing 3 to 7 words).

Task number 5

In KIM’s promising Russian language model developed by FIPI for the USE in 2020, graduates will need to recall the paronyms on the list (as well as their meaning) when completing assignment 5.

In the assignment, the examinees will need to familiarize themselves with the five sentences, determining in which of them the word paronym (these words are highlighted) is used incorrectly.

Please note that the answer must indicate the correct word, the use of which will be appropriate in this lexical design. It will be easier to choose the right pair if at the stage of preparation for the Unified State Examination 2020 a student works out all the paronyms that are on the FIPI list.

So, in the proposed task from the demo, the paronym in the 4th sentence is incorrectly selected. Instead of the word EFFICIENCY it is necessary to write EFFECTIVENESS. Accordingly, in response, we write EFFICIENCY.

Dictionary

In the Russian language there are a lot of words that are close in sound and spelling, but differ in meaning. You don’t have to learn everything, because for the Unified State Examination in 2020, you will need only those paronyms that FIPI has included in its short list.

BUT
Subscription - subscriber

Artistic - Artistic

B
Poor - Poor

Reckless - reckless

Swampy - Swampy

Thankful - Thankful

Charity - beneficent

Former - Former

AT
Inhale - sigh

Century - Eternal

Great - Majestic

Replenish - supplement - fill - fill - overflow -

replenish; full - full - full

Hostile - enemy

Choose - choose; choosing - choosing

Benefit - Profitability

Extradition - bestowal - transfer - distribution

Payment - payment - payment - payment

Pay - pay - pay - pay - pay

Grow - grow - grow

Growing - Building - Growing

High - high

G
Warranty - Guaranteed

Harmonic - harmonious

Clay - Clay

Yearly - Yearly - Yearly

Pride - Pride

Humanism - Humanity

Humanistic - Humanitarian - Humane

D
Binary - double - double - double - double -

doubled

Effective - Actual - Acting

Business - Business - Business - Business

Democratic - Democratic

Dictation - Dictation

Diplomat - diplomat

Diplomatic - Diplomatic

Long - Long

Mighty - kind

Trusted - Trustful

Rain - Rain

Dramatic - Dramatic

Friendly - Friendly - Friendly

E
Single - only
F
Desired - Desired

Cruel - hard

Vital - everyday

Housing - Residential

3
To fence - to fence - to fence - to fence - to partition

Underestimate - lower - lower

The instigator - the instigator

Bestial - brutal

Sound - sound

Visual - spectator

AND
Inventive - Inventive

Informative - informational

Information - Awareness

Ironic - ironic

Artificial - Artificial

Executive - Executive

Outgoing - Outgoing

TO
Rocky - stone

Comfortable - comfortable

Equestrian - Horse

Chunky - Root - Root

Bone - bone

Colorful - Coloring - Dyed

L
Varnished - Varnished

Ice - ice

Wooded - Forest

Personal - personal

M
Microscopic - Microscopic

Ice cream - freezer - frosty

N
To put on - to put on

Availability - Cash

Reminder - Mention

The ignoramus is the ignoramus

Intolerant - impatient - intolerant

Unsuccessful - Unsuccessful

ABOUT
Accused - indictment

Scrap - Excerpt

Grab - grab

Limit - delimit - delimit

Hail - response

Organic - Organic

Selective - Selective

Deviation - Evasion

Deviate - Evade

To distinguish (s) - to distinguish (s)

The difference is the difference

P
Memorable - Memorable

Endure - endure

Purchasing - Purchasing - Purchasing

Populist - Popular

Honorable - Honorable - Honorable

Practical - Practical

Provide - submit

Representative - Representative

Recognized - Appreciation

Productive - grocery

Productivity - Production

Productive - Production

Enlightening - Enlightened

Journalistic - journalistic

Shy - scared

R
Irritation - irritability

Rhythmic - rhythmic

Romantic - romantic

FROM
Secretive - hidden

Vocabulary - verbal

Resistance - Resistance

Neighbor - Neighbor

Comparable - comparative

Stage - Stage

T
Technical - Technical
At
Lucky - lucky

Humiliated - Humiliating

F
Actual - Actual
X
Predatory - predatory
Ts
Royal - royal - reigning

Whole - whole - holistic

E
Economic - economical - economical

Aesthetic - Aesthetic

Ethical - Ethical

Effective - effective

Efficiency - Effectiveness

The semantic meaning of most of the words given in the tablet is well known to you. But there are also pairs and series, the memorization of which from year to year makes students difficult. Here a dictionary can come to the rescue, in which all the paronyms are given with explanations. Understanding the lexical meaning of this or that word, you will not make mistakes in the preparation of the sentence, and you will easily find the wrong paronym in task number 5.

Option number 1

You can find a dictionary that contains not only the list of words for the USE 2020, but also their meaning, on the Internet. For example, on the portal paronymonline.ru, where all pairs and rows are conveniently divided into blocks in alphabetical order.

Option number 2

Download one of the Russian dictionaries (Kolesnikov, Sedakov, Vvedenskaya or other authors), which contains all the paronyms, including those that will meet at the USE 2020.

Option number 3

If you don’t like studying in front of the monitor screen, and you’re not ready to study a large dictionary, download the most necessary paronyms in pdf format and get ready for the Unified State Examination 2020 even without Internet access.

Secrets of memorization

For many, remembering paronyms is a real problem and even a good dictionary with explanations cannot facilitate the preparation for the Unified State Examination 2020 (the problem is especially urgent for those for whom Russian is not the main language in communication).

If synonymous pairs and series are not fixed in any way, try one of the effective tips of experienced teachers. People with developed visual perception will be helped by pictures showing the difference between the meaning of similar words. For those who are better at listening, tutors recommend memorizing rhymes with paronyms.

My grandfather was full today -

Too hearty ate dinner.

The diplomat presented to all guests -

Work worthy of all the awards he provided them.

Believe me, in fact

We can’t stand the test!

Composing your rhymed lines with paronyms can also be great entertainment.

Those who remember better when listening to the teacher should study the topic through video tutorials in which USE tutors tell in detail about how to correctly complete task number 5, as well as remembering which pairs and rows to pay special attention to.

Watch the video: Confusing Words in English - Homophones - Vocabulary (December 2019).